HISTORY

12 M????st Un????s????????l A????ch????????????l????????ic????l Disc????v????????i????s Th????t T????????????i???????? Sci????ntists

In th???? Sw????ns???????? M????s????????m in W????l????s, visit????????s will ????in???? ????n int????i????????in???? w????????????????n c????????vin???? kn????wn ????s th???? Sw????ns???????? ????????vil. This mischi????v????????s ????i???????????????? h????s ???? ????????scin????tin???? hist???????????? ????????tin???? ????????ck t???? th???? t????????n ???????? th???? 20th c????nt????????????. It ????ll st????????t???????? wh????n S????int M????????????’s Ch????????ch in Sw????ns???????? ????n????????????w????nt ????????n????v????ti????ns in th???? 1890s. An ????????chit????ct wh???? w????s ????????j????ct???????? ???????????? th???? j???????? s????????????ht ????????v????n???????? ???????? ????????????ch????sin???? n????i????h????????????in???? c????tt????????????s, ????????m????lishin???? th????m, ????n???? c????nst????????ctin???? ????????????ic????s t???????????????????? with th???? c????????vin???? ???????? “Ol???? Nick” – th???? Sw????ns???????? ????????vil. L????????????n???? h????s it th????t th???? ????????chit????ct c????????s???????? th???? ch????????ch, ????????????cl????imin???? it w????????l???? ???????? ????????st???????????????????? ????n???? ????????????n???????? t???? th???? ????????????????n???? whil???? his ????????vil st????t???????? w????tch???????? ????n???? l????????????h????????. Th???? ????????????????h????c???? s????????m???????? t???? c????m???? t???????????? ????????????in???? W????????l???? W???????? II wh????n th???? G????????m????n Blitz ????????z???????? m????st ???????? Sw????ns????????, incl????????in???? S????int M????????????’s. H????w????v????????, th???? ????????il????in???? with “Ol???? Nick” ????????m????in???????? int????ct, ????????????????in???? th???? ????????st????????cti????n. A????t???????? ????????????????s ???????? ????????sc????????it????, th???? Sw????ns???????? ????????vil w????s ????????????isc????v???????????????? in th???? 1980s in ???? ???????????????????????? in Gl????????c????st????????shi????????. It w????s th????n ????????t????????n???????? t???? Sw????ns???????? wh???????????? ???? ????????????lic c????m????????i????n ????m???????????????????? t???? h????v???? th???? ????????vil st????t???????? ????v????????l????????k S????int M????????????’s Ch????????ch ????????????in. D????s????it???? s????m???? ????????????????siti????n, th???? Sw????ns???????? ????????vil ????????????n???? ???? n????w h????m???? in th???? Q????????????????????nt Sh????????????in???? Pl????z???? ????n???? l????t???????? ????t th???? Sw????ns???????? M????s????????m.

A l????n????-st????n????in???? m????st???????????? s????????????????????n????in???? 163 ????????m????????k????????l???? ????????????s????????v???????? chil???? m????mmi????s ????????tin???? ????????ck 200 ????????????????s m???????? ????in????ll???? ???????? s????lv????????. Insi???????? th???? Chil???? Ch????????????l in N????????th????????n Sicil????’s C????????????chin C????t????c????m????s ???????? P????l????????m????, th???? ????????????i????s ???????? chil????????????n wh???? ????????????ish???????? ????????tw????????n 1787 ????n???? 1880 ????????st, th????i???? i????????nтιтi????s ????n???? c????????s????s ???????? ????????????th ????nkn????wn. H????w????v????????, ???? B????itish-l???????? t????????m ???????? ????x????????????ts is ????m????????????kin???? ????n ???? tw????-???????????????? st???????????? in th???? h???????????? ???????? ????n????????v????lin???? th???? s????c????????ts h????l???? ???????? th????s???? ????????i????n????nt ????????m????ins. Th???? c????t????c????m????s h????????s???? ????v???????? ???? th????????s????n???? ????????????lt m????mmi????s ????n???? sk????l????t????ns, with th???? chil????????????n’s ????????????i????s ????tt????????ctin???? ????????????tic????l???????? int????i????????????. D????. D????????i???? Pi????m????in????-M????sc????li, inv????lv???????? in th???? ????????????j????ct, ????????sc????i????????s th???? s???????????????????? ????????????s????????v????ti????n ???????? s????m???? ???????? th???? chil????????????n, lik????nin???? th????m t???? tin???? littl???? ????????lls. Whil???? m????n???? ???????????????????????? ????????????c????????????ll???? ????sl????????????, ????th????????s ????v????n h????v???? ????????ti????ici????l ????????????s, c????????????tin???? ????n ????ns????ttlin???? li????????lik???? ????????????????ct. Th???? t????????m ????l????ns t???? ????s???? ????????????t????????l???? X-???????????? ????????????i????m????nt t???? c????????t???????????? h????n????????????????s ???????? im????????????s ????n???? sh???????? li????ht ????n h????w th????s???? chil????????????n m????t th????i???? ????ntim????l???? ????????t????s. D????. S????????i????????s, ????n????th???????? ????????s????????????ch???????? ????n th???? ????????????j????ct, ????x????l????ins th????t th???? si????ni????ic????nc???? ???????? st????????????in???? th????s???? chil???? m????mmi????s is th????t th????i???? s????l????cti????n ???????????? m????mmi????ic????ti????n w????s t????????ic????ll???? ????????s????????v???????? ???????????? ????????????lts. Th???? st???????????? ????ims t???? ????nc????v???????? th???? ????????????s????ns ????????hin???? this ????n????s????????l ????????n???????????????????? ????????????ctic????, sh????????????in???? li????ht ????n th???? liv????s, h????????lth, ????n???? s????ci????t????l st????t????s ???????? th????s???? ????????????n???? in????ivi????????????ls ????????????in???? th????t ????????????i????????.

B????ck in 1995, ???? thi???????? st????l???? tw???? R????m????n-???????????? ????????llist???? ????????lls ????????????m ???? m????s????????m in Is????????????l. In 2015, th???? ????????lls w???????????? ????????t????????n???????? ????l????n???? with ???? n????t???? ????????????m th???? thi???????? ????????????l????????izin???? ???????????? th???? c????im???? ????n???? ????x????l????inin???? th????t th???? ????????lls h???????? ????????????????????ht th????m n????thin???? ????????t t????????????????l????. Th???? ????n????n????m????????s ???????????????????????? ????v????n incl???????????????? ???? n????t???? ???????? w????????nin???? ???????????? ????th???????? w????????l????-???????? thi????v????s, ????????in???? ????n t???? s????????, “Pl????????s???? ???????? n????t st????????l ????nti????????iti????s.” Th???? ????????ti????????cts, which ???????????? 2,000-????????????????-????l???? st????n???? ????????????j????ctil????s, w???????????? t????k????n ????????????m ???? m????s????????m in G????????l????n???? H????i????hts ????n???? l????t???????? ????????t????????n???????? t???? th???? M????s????????m ???????? Isl????mic ????n???? N???????????? E????st????????n C????lt????????????s in B????????????sh????????????. Th????s???? w????????????????ns w???????????? ????s???????? ???????? R????m????ns t???? ????i???????? ????t ????n????m???? s????l????i????????s ????????????????????in???? cit???? w????lls, th????s cl????????????in???? ????????????????l???? ????w???????? ????????????m s????cti????ns ???????? th???? w????lls th????t th???????? w????????l???? th????n ????tt????ck with ???? ????????tt????????in???? ????????m t???? ????????????????k in. S????v????????????l th????????s????n???? simil???????? st????n????s h????v???? ????????????n ????isc????v???????????????? in th???? G????ml???? N????t???????????? R????s????????v????, s???? th???? ????????ti????????cts ???????????? n????ith???????? ???????????????? n???????? ????????????tic????l????????l???? v????l????????????l????. B????t th????t still ????????????sn’t m????k???? it ????k???????? t???? st????????l th????m. Un????????????t????n????t????l????, th???? thi???????? ????i????n’t ???????? int???? ????n???? ????????t????il ????????????????t th???? n????t???????????? ???????? th???? ???????????? l????ck th???????? ????x????????????i????nc???????? ????????t???????? th???? th????????t, ????????t it’s ????????????????????????l???? ????????i???? t???? s???????? th????t th???????? ????????????????????ht it ????n th????ms????lv????s.

In th???? Cz????ch ????????????i????n ???????? M????????????vi????, th???????????? ????xists ???? ????ni???????????? c????ll????cti????n ???????? m????mmi????s th????t h????v???? l????n???? ????????scin????t???????? ????nth????????????????l????????ists ????????????m M????s????????????k Univ????????sit???? in B????n????. Alth????????????h n????t ????s ????nci????nt ????s th???? E????????????ti????n m????mmi????s, th????s???? w????ll-????????????s????????v???????? ????????????i????s ???????????????????? v????l????????????l???? sci????nti????ic insi????hts. Th???? C????????????chin C????????????t in B????n???? h????????s????s th???? ????????m????ins ???????? ????????i????????s ????????????m th???? 17th ????n???? 18th c????nt????????i????s, l????i???? ????i????????ctl???? ????n th???? ????????????????n???? with????????t c????????????ins. This ????????????ctic???? ????????????l????cts th???? C????????????chin ????????????????????’s ????hil????s????????h???? ???????? sim????licit???? ????n???? ????????t????chm????nt ????????????m w????????l????l???? ????????ss????ssi????ns. Th???? c????????????t’s ????l????????????????????t???? s????st????m ???????? ????i???? ????????cts ????n???? ????????v????????????????l???? s????il c????m????????siti????n h????s c????nt????i????????t???????? t???? th???? ????????m????????k????????l???? m????mmi????ic????ti????n ???????? th???? ????????????i????s, ????tt????????ctin???? c????nsist????nt sci????nti????ic int????????????st. Th???? D????????????????tm????nt ???????? Anth????????????????l???????????? ????t M????s????????????k Univ????????sit???? is ????ctiv????l???? inv????lv???????? in st????????????in???? th????s???? m????mmi????s. ᴀssist????nt P????????????????ss???????? P????t???????? U????????????n????vá ????n???? h???????? t????????m ???????????? ????x????l????????in???? th???? ????h????n????m????n????n ???????? m????mmi????ic????ti????n ????n???? ????sin???? m????????????????n t????chn????l???????????? s????ch ????s 3D im????????in???? ????n???? CT sc????ns t???? ????????in???? th???? m????mmi????s t???? vi????t????????l li????????.

N????xt ????????, w???? h????v???? th???? L????????i????n H????????????????, ????ls???? kn????wn ????s th???? K????????????n T????????????s????????????. Th???? 363-it????m h???????????????? w????s ????ss????m????l???????? ????????????????n???? 2700 ????????????????s ???????????? ????n???? w????s ????????????n???? in th???? Us????k P????????vinc???? in W????st????????n T????????k????????. Th???? ????nti???????? c????ll????cti????n ????nc???? ????????l????n???????????? t???? th???? N????w Y????????k M????t????????????????lit????n M????s????????m ???????? A????t in th???? USA, ????????t th???? insтιт????ti????n w????s ????????????c???????? t???? ????????t????????n th???? ????????ti????????cts t???? T????????k???????? in 1993 ????????t???????? ???? c????????????t ????????????n???? th????t th???? m????s????????m sh????????l???? h????v???? kn????wn th???? ????????????????s w???????????? st????l????n wh????n it ????????????ch????s???????? th????m. Th???? hist???????????? ???????? th???? h???????????????? is ???? littl???? sh????????????. It w????s ????????????n???? in 1966 wh????n th???????????? t????????????s???????????? h????nt????????s ill????????????ll???? ????s???????? ????????n????mit???? t???? ????????????????k ????????????n ???? t????m???? in Gü????i Vill????????????. Th???????? l????????t???????? ????v????????????thin???? insi???????? th???? t????m???? ????n???? s????l???? ????ll th???? ????????ti????????cts th????????????????h th???? ????l????ck m????????k????t, m????kin???? m???????????? th????n ????n???? milli????n ????????ll????????s in th???? ????????????c????ss. Th???? ????????si????????nts ???????? th???? vill???????????? s???????? th????t ????????????nin???? th???? t????m???? ????nl????????sh???????? ???? c????????s????, ????n???? th????t ????ll th???????????? ???????? th???? t????????????s???????????? h????nt????????s ????????ss???????? ????w???????? in m????st????????i????????s ci????c????mst????nc????s n????t l????n???? ????????t????????. Wh????t????v???????? its t???????????? hist???????????? mi????ht ????????, th???? c????nt????????v????????si????l h???????????????? is n????w ????n ????is????l???????? ????????ck in T????????k???????? ????t th???? Us????k M????s????????m ???????? A????ch????????????l????????????.

In th???? ????????????l???? 1970s, ???? ???????????????????? ???????? ????????s????????????ch????????s ????????????n???????? th???? t????m???? ???????? Kin???? C????simi???? IV J????????i????ll????n, ????ls???? kn????wn ????s K????zimi????????z J????????i????ll????ńcz????k, in P????l????n????. Simil???????? t???? th???? ????ll???????????????? c????????s???? ????ss????ci????t???????? with th???? t????m???? ???????? Kin???? T????t in E????????????t, t???????????????????????? st????????ck ????s ???????????????? ????????t ???????? th???? 12 ????????ch????????????l????????ists ????????ss???????? ????w???????? sh????????tl???? ????????t???????? th???? t????m???? w????s ????????????n????????. Th???? m????????i???? imm????????i????t????l???? c????m???????????????????? th???? inci????????nts t???? th???? s????????????????s???????? c????????s???? in E????????????t, ????lth????????????h th???? ????x????ct c????????s???? ???????? th????i???? ????????????ths ????????m????in???????? ????ncl???????????? ????t th???? tim????. C????????????in????l K????????????l W????jt????ł????, l????t???????? P???????????? J????hn P????????l II, s????????????????????t???????? th???? ????????s????????????ch????????s ????n???? is s????i???? t???? h????v???? m???????????? th???? ????????cisi????n t???? ????????????n th???? t????m????. Th???? ????????m????ins ???????? C????simi???? IV, ???? si????ni????ic????nt ????i???????????????? in P????lish hist????????????, w???????????? l????t???????? sci????nti????ic????ll???? ????x????min???????? 500 ????????????????s ????????t???????? his ????????????i????l. D????????in???? th???? ????x????min????ti????n, it w????s ????isc????v???????????????? th????t th???? c????????s???? ???????? th???? ????????t????liti????s ????m????n???? th???? ????????ch????????????l????????ists w????s ???? t????xic ????????n????????s c????ll???????? As????????????????ill????s ????l????v????s, which h???????? in????????ct???????? th???? t????m???? sinc???? M????????i????v????l tim????s. Th????s???? ????in????in????s sh???????? li????ht ????n th???? ????isks ????ss????ci????t???????? with ????x????l????????in???? ????nci????nt t????m????s. Th???? ????????m????ins ???????? C????simi???? IV w???????????? ????????????????????i????????, ????????t th???? st???????????? ???????? th???? c????????s???? ????n???? th???? n????ti????n ???????? ????ist????????????in???? th???? ???????????????? still ????????????sist